God, Allah (SWT), the Creator of the Universe, tells the story Himself, in His last Book, the Quran. The Qur’an contains hundreds of verses that speak of the universe, its components and phenomena such as the Earth, the sun, the moon, the stars, mountains, wind, running water, plants, embryological animals, and the successive stages of development of the human being. (Karim 2020)

More than 1,000 verses relating to cosmic facts or cosmic phenomena can be counted in the Quran. During the early days of the Quran, scientific knowledge of the universe was limited and it was not easy to elaborate on the verses relating to the universe or its phenomena except within the limitations of the time.

However, we now know about the laws of the universe much more than before and that is why reviewing the 1,000 or more verses relating to the cosmos, man and his surroundings can be one of the most obvious miraculous aspects of the Quran.

This is because of the precedence of the Quran, which was revealed more than 14 Centuries ago, with many of the scientific facts, at a time when people had no knowledge whatsoever of such facts. 

The Quran has addressed so many of these facts in a language that is more precise, accurate and concise than scientists have ever been able to do. Nothing in the Quran contradicts any established scientific facts.

These cannot be all covered in a short article and hence I have chosen the following five topics backed by Quranic verses that can testify to the miraculous nature of the Quran from a scientific point of view. 

1. The Big Bang theory
The creation of the universe is explained by astrophysicists in a widely accepted phenomenon, popularly known as the “Big Bang”. It is supported by observational and experimental data gathered by astronomers and astrophysicists for decades.

According to the “Big Bang,” theory, the whole universe was initially one big mass (Primary Nebula). Then there was a “Big Bang” (Secondary Separation), which resulted in the formation of Galaxies.

These then divided to form stars, planets, the sun, the moon, etc. The origin of the universe was unique and the probability of its occurring by “chance” is zero.

The Quran contains the following verse, regarding the origin of the universe:

“Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were (once) a joined entity, then We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?” (Quran, 21:30)

The striking congruence between the Quranic verse and the “Big Bang” is inescapable! How could a book, which first appeared in the deserts of Arabia 1400 years ago, contain this profound scientific truth?

2. Expansion of the universe
In 1925 an American astronomer by the name of Edwin Hubble provided observational evidence that all galaxies are receding from one another, which implies that the universe is expanding. The expansion of the universe is now an established scientific fact.

This is what the Quran says regarding the formation of the universe:

“And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander.” (Quran, 51:47)

Stephen Hawking, in his book ‘A Brief History of Time’, says, “The discovery that the universe is expanding is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the 20th century.”

The Quran mentioned the expansion of the universe before man even learnt to build a telescope!

3. Formation of galaxies from gas/smoke
Scientists say that before the galaxies in the universe were formed, celestial matter was initially in the form of gaseous matter. In short, huge gaseous matter or clouds were present before the formation of the galaxies.

To describe initial celestial matter, the word “smoke” is more appropriate than gas. The following Quranic verse refers to this state of the universe by the word dukhan which means smoke:

“Then He turned to the heaven when it was smoke…” (Quran, 41:11)

Again, this fact is a corollary to the “Big Bang” and was not known to mankind during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (s). What then, could have been the source of this knowledge?

4. Pain receptors on the skin
It was thought that the sense of feeling and pain was only dependent on the brain. Recent discoveries prove that there are pain receptors present in the skin without which a person would not be able to feel pain.

When a doctor examines a patient suffering from burn injuries, he verifies the degree of burns by a pinprick. If the patient feels pain, the doctor is happy, because it indicates that the burns are superficial and the pain receptors are intact.

On the other hand if the patient does not feel any pain, it indicates that it is a deep burn and the pain receptors have been destroyed. The Quran gives an indication of the existence of pain receptors in the following verse:

Indeed, those who disbelieve in Our verses (ie signs, proofs). We will drive them into a Fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted in Might and Wise. But those who believe and do righteous deeds – We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide forever.” (Quran, 4:56-57)

Prof Tagatat Tejasen, Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University in Thailand, had spent a great amount of time on research of pain receptors. Initially he could not believe that the Quran mentioned this scientific fact 1400 years ago.

He later verified the translation of this particular Quranic verse. Prof Tejasen was so impressed by the scientific accuracy of the Quranic verse, that at a medical Conference in 1985 he proclaimed in public the Shahadah (Islamic declaration of faith), thus embraced Islam.

5. Source and significance of iron
The source of iron (Fe); we read in the Quran: “Indeed, We have sent down iron in which there is great (military) might and benefits for the people.” (Quran, 57:25)

It has recently been proven that all iron, not only on our planet but also in the entire solar system, was obtained from outer space. This is because the temperature of the sun cannot generate iron.

The sun has a surface temperature of 6000 degrees Celsius and a central temperature of about 20 million degrees Celsius. There exists much hotter stars, which are known as novae, or super novae where temperatures can reach 100’s of billions of degrees Celsius and it is in these stars that iron is formed.

When the percentage of iron reaches a certain proportion of the mass of the star it explodes and these exploded-particles travel in space until they are captured by the gravitational fields of other heavenly bodies.

This is how our solar system obtained all of its iron and it is an established fact today that all the iron in our solar system was not generated or created within the system but has come to it from outer space.