While visiting her childhood abode after many years, Gertrud Stein made a legendary statement.
Her hometown Oakland underwent many changes since she left it. She noticed that her known Oakland she lived in did not exist there anymore due to changes of unthinkable scale. That triggered her comment – ‘there is no there there’– meaning, changes stole away her homeland and it was then a different Oakland!
This became a maxim for English literature. Astonishingly this was true not only for Oakland – but for the whole Creation; changes change time and space. The rule of cosmos is – things fly away from ‘there’ on the wings of time never to be seen ‘there’ again!
Everyone knows today, – the entire universe is expanding with unthinkable speeds! This single information had cut theories like Darwinism or many agnostic beliefs by their knees; there was a beginning and as such, there is a big Creator out there. The ‘God Question’ now has gone past the limit of trial and test once for all scientifically.
The universe is expanding – this is the heavy-weight information of the 20th Century. It challenges Darwinism and all atheistic views by necessitating the position of God as the most essential part of the Creational Cosmology [Image: Courtesy Google]
The middle-age-Church saw earth at the centre of the universe; it has been established now that the cosmos has no centre. To reach this – human intellect had to wait for two thousand years and it was not until an instrument called ‘expanding universe’ was in hand. John Gribbin makes a wonderful historical assessment – ‘Astronomers were still happy with a static universe in 1920s’. A new era of understanding began only after Edwin Hubble explored the universe we knew so long was mare our Milky Way Galaxy. Preparing a chart of Red Shifts of distant objects – he helped science to think an expanding universe and thus, the modern era of Cosmology began.
De Chesaux in 1744 was the first to indicate a vast and expanding universe in modern science. He argued – as any point in the sky, your sight will certainly stop on a star, the theoretical universe is supposed to be very bright at night; at least 40,000 times brighter than the noon sun! Then the question he asked – not during night, why in the day time even, the universe is so dark? None listened to De-Chesaux. In 1826 Wilhelm Olbers brought a similar question to the scientific community; this is today known as Olber’s Paradox. He argued – hypothetically if the universe is static, homogeneous at a large scale and populated with an infinite number of stars – then any line of sight from Earth must end at the (very bright) surface of a star and hence the night sky should be completely illuminated and very bright all the time. Why not is it? Question arose:
- Is universe infinite indeed?
- Is the universe homogeneous throughout?
- Is the universe fixed and unchanged?
Observations showed in whatever direction scientists sampled the sky – they found the same number of galaxies in same volume of sky in all directions. This means, the universe is homogenous. The only assumption helps explaining this existence of the universal darkness is – the cosmos is too big or it is expanding!
The invention of spectroscopy opened the door of cosmology. Scientists could detect the blue and red shifts [blue shift refers to an approaching object and redshift suggests a receding object]. From 1923 – 1929, Hubble collected data of galaxies in the far and close; when he plotted their shifts on the map, he was puzzled to discover – the entire complex of bodies are receding in all directions; going backwards and further away. This suggested – the entire universe is expanding! The more the objects are away from us – the larger are their redshifts and the faster the objects are flying away from us!
The speeding platforms in the sky were found to obey certain rules; the speed is proportional to the distance and inversely proportional to time; this is known as Hubble’s Law [V=D/T]. This law suggested a constant known as Hubble ’s Constant that reflects the rate at which the universe is expanding. The velocity of a galaxy could be expressed mathematically as v = H x d where v is the galaxy’s radial outward velocity, d is galaxy’s distance from earth and H is Hubble’s constant. Hubble found out – for every megaparsec [3.26 million LY] there is an increment in speed by 75km/sec. Interestingly long after Hubble, with current modern tools, this value is found to be almost accurate.
Hubble’s law suggested that a galaxy at 2700 Light-Years away will have a speed of 45,000 miles/ second [our galaxy]. Distant objects like Quasar 3C-295 is receding at a speed of 90,000 miles/second. GN-z11 is the most distant Quasar in constellation Ursa Major with an exceptional redshift z=11.09 receding at 95% speed of light [176700 miles/ sec]
Hubble’s discovery helped scientists determine the so called Big Bang for the creational cosmology at the root of which is understood as a huge explosion of energy. According to theory – all matters and energy were trapped into an ultra-super-dense primordial stew after Big Bang. The force of the blast instantaneously threw all primordial stuffs in all directions in violent speed. The inertia of that force continuously pushed the primordial debris outwards – these debris were the seeds of galaxies. From thence – the entire universe is expanding. Scientists now can extrapolate the speed and strength of energy by reverse calculations and form a clean picture of this universal expansion.
At this stage – let’s open Quran.
The verse 51:47 tells us –‘Certainly the Sky (universe) we made it from energy [energy, power, strength) and certainly we are expanding it’!
Quran expressed the fact just to the point.
At the root of this expansion (i.e. la-mu^siun ﻣﻮﺴﻌﻮﻦ) – there exists a power (i.e. biaideen ﺑﺎﻴﺪ); as such – the making of the universe according to Quran is purely from Power or Strength or Energy and the simultaneous phenomenon is the expansion of the universe.
One of the requirements of the supposed Big Bang is – it must cause the universe from nothingness at a very narrow timeframe in the order of 10^-43th second at the Plank Time [1 second divided by 10,000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000]. Could any religious book explain such narrowness of time of the creational cosmology?
Alas! Even science could not for more than a century; yet Quran revealed this explanation some 1500 years ago.
It requires a long thesis to orient with the Quranic Timeframe of Creation. In nutshell – for the Creational Phases, Quran used a term called ‘yaom’ that is commonly understood as a human day. The Quranic yaom however is much different – ranges from a very tiny fractional time [like Planck Time] to a very long time frame of 50,000 human years. From verse 6:73 we know that Allah SWT Creates things most instantly [‘And He is the One Who created the heavens and earth in accurate measure, whenever He says “Be!” it is’]. This verse tells us that the creation is very immediate by Kun and Fa-yakun [(ﻛﻦ) and (ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻦ)]. This gives some sense of swiftness, however certainly, thoughts will not allow to support the speed of Plank Time that the universe must come in existence in one part of a second divided by Ten Thousand Million Billion Trillion Trillion (10^-43 sec). This speed is too rapid and there is no known method to measure and compare this time and speed thereby!
Now this definitely is a very critical test for Quran whether it could satisfy this principle of Planck Time. And very surprisingly Quran does very befittingly! Look at the verse 54:50; it says – ‘And Our command is but for once by the strike of sight – even faster than this’. Interestingly ‘strike of sight’ is related to the light and certainly brings the scale of light speed in concept. Quran here substantiates the speed of God Almighty is even faster than light speed! In human language, there is no more means to express this rapidity or the speed of action! So verse 54:50 fits absolutely into the requirement of the narrowest Plank Time in the creational phase of Big Bang.
When you invoke such a violent speed in action – the force of the action is certainly excessively violent too. As such the Creation Quran has been referring to in 51:47 is essentially a product of very violent energy and as the expansion is very simultaneous with the creation of universe, the resultant expansion could also be very violent at the moment of creation. This is a picture of a violent explosion that is tantamount to the Big Bang scientists believe to have happened inevitably.
The word lamusiun is a present participle and its root is awsa – that denotes the meanings to widen, to make spacious, and to expand. It means it is expanding and it will expand in days to come. Today’s science had understood – ‘Einstein’s Biggest Blander’ the Cosmological Constant in true meaning. For many years scientists had been dwelling in the ‘oscillating universe’ or ‘steady state theory’ or ‘big crunch’. These are now regarded as the big mistakes of science! But Quran advised the human – the universe is ever expanding! It has by now been proved that humans were wrong by all means! It is Quran that gave the true information in respect to the true nature of the Creational Cosmology unerringly one and half thousand years before human began to understand the subject!
Could you imagine an Unlettered Prophet in 7th century AD issued an ever unalterable dictum in respect of the highest possible scientific matter of the frontier science of 21st century that the universe is ever expanding? How could he do it?
We already discussed that Quran not only theorized the expanding universe in the Dark Age; but also it explains its Energy-Expansion correlations. We moreover examined the narrowness of the Planck Time and vindicated how successfully Quran explains that. Now I will add to it another information [there are many more] that will help visualize the undeniable truth in the Expanding Universe proposition of Quran in extraordinarily completeness.
This is about the nature of expansion. At whatever point you will stand with a powerful telescope, your observation will fetch you a curious experience. You will observe – in all directions star, galaxies, clouds, clusters, constellations, Quasars – all are receding from you. Everything is moving backwards. Edwin Hubble was the one who introduced the concept of the expanded horizon in cosmology by looking at far beyond our Milky Way, the putative universe those days. Hubble expressed the expanding universe in his way – ‘the history of astronomy is the history of receding horizons’. This nature of the universal expansion is analogous to an inflating giant balloon increasing its size continuously. Imagine on that balloon there are many features or pictures or dots. If you could somehow shrink yourself suitably and stand at any point of that balloon, you could observe, – as the balloon is inflating and increasing in size, all the features and pictures and dots around your point are going backwards and making more distance from you all the time. This is the exact nature of the expanding universe.
Quran describes this nature in precise wordings never to be mistaken – ‘By the receding heavenly bodies that are moving away and vanishing in the far-off (81:15), and by the floating objects (in the sky) that glide away and disappear’ [in the furthest] (81:16).
The word (ﺧﻧﺲ) khunnas in 81:15 (plural of khanis) means planets or stars or heavenly bodies disappearing due to going backwards i.e. receding! In 81:16 the confirmatory statement appears with further authentication; it says – ‘floating objects (ﺟۄ١ﺮ) (heavenly bodies) that glide and disappear’. A floating object only can disappear by making more distance from the observer. Imagine you are on a cruise and your ship is static in the middle of the sea; there are other ships in the very deep sea all around and they are disappearing! What has happened? Those moving ships are receding or retreating or going away from you rearwards. Exactly this is the case for the universe; if you look at any given direction, you will see heavenly bodies floating in the void are retreating from you and when they achieved a distance from where no more light can come and reach your eyes – those objects ‘disappear’ forever. While the 81:15 was enough to describe the situation – Allah the Exulted added another synonymous statement in 81:16 to doubly conform this phenomenon so that an iota of doubt could not persist that Quran revealed the topmost science in precession when the entire humankind was in the darkness and science itself was a misnomer!
Interesting enough, that all these came out from the statements of an unlettered prophet from the desert of Arabia in a time when entire mankind was sunk in the darkness of Dark Age. For a century modern science was debating in Steady State Theory or Oscillating Universe or Big Crunch and so on – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) solved this issue in the Seventh Century AD unerringly – the universe is ever expanding and this was only discovered by contemporary science in 21st Century after it learned the ‘Blunder of Einstein’ was in fact the ‘God’s Equation’ indeed. Regrettably none noticed this theory was inscribed in the page of Quran from 610 AD! For last 1500 years Quran maintained this theory in most eloquent simplicity that science itself could not yet express those simple and direct words even reaching at the landmark of accomplishments!
‘Certainly In this is a sign for people who understand’ (Quran 16:67).