This issue continues the series exclusive to AMUST on the 99 divine attributes of Allah. 

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79  –  Al Barr – The Benign Benefactor. 

They will converse with one another, putting questions to each other:1 

Before this, when we were among our families, we were full of fear of God’s displeasure.

God has been gracious to us and has saved us from the torments of Hell’s intense heat, 

before this, we used to pray to Him. Surely, He is the Benificient, the Merciful. 

Therefore continue to give warning, for by the grace of your Rabb, you are not a soothsayer or a mad man.

If they say, “ He is but a poet, we are waiting for some misfortunes to befall him.4

say [to them], “Wait then: I too am waiting along with you! 5 

is it their minds that prompt them [to say] this, or are they merely insolent people.6?

Or they do not say, “He has invented himself? Indeed they are not willingly to believe. 

Let them produce a scripture like it, if what they say is true.

(Al-Tur 52: 25-34)

  1. These are the persons enjoying the bounties as rewards of the paradise. In the relaxation time they used to ask each other their experiences while living in this world. Now they are expressing their happenings in these words: “We were not living in luxuries passing a carefree living: indeed on the attainments of the world rather we had always the anxiety never to indulge in any action for which we may be punished by Allah.” They used to express these statements with a sense of contentment that the persons indulge in evils because of engrossing themselves and their family members in the comforts and  the material attractions of the world.
  2. In this next verse, they are openly confirming that Allah saved them from the torments of the Hell Fire because of their prayers to Him being benevolent and merciful.
  3. From here onward, this dialogue in Quran now deals with the arrogances of the Makkan non- acceptance of the Prophet’s Message, though apparently the Prophet is addressed.  When the Prophet used to present Allah’s divine message to the Chiefs and Religious Leaders of Makkah, they never paid serious attention to this truth nor did they like that the public took interest in this message. Hence they used to taunt the Prophet with the concocted titles of  Soothsayer, Lunatic or a Poet.  The prophet is addressed in Al-Quran, “O Prophet! In reality, as stated in the beginning of this chapter about your genuine efforts, you should ignore the absurd propaganda of your opponents. You should continue your original task of disclosing the Truth to alert people from their carelessness, as you are, in no case, a Soothsayer or a Lunatic by the grace of Allah.”
  4. They also blame the Prophet as a poetry composer so that if people become annoyed with his preaching and continuous reminder of Allah to transform them to a people of high character. By spreading the baseless lies, the non- believers wish to be free from removing their arrogance and high-handiness.
  5. It means that Allah tells the Prophet to wait for the outcome of their fictitious titles because in the end who is to be punished: the non-believers for their polytheistic ideas and blasphemy or the Prophet with his conveyance of the divine message to the people?
  6. The opponents are so interested in their position that they adopt pride and present these three baseless “deficiencies” of the Prophet. The chiefs and religious leaders of Quraish propagate foolish ideas. How can the intellect be used for concocting three different absurd titles for the Prophet.
  7. If the opponents claim that the message of Muhammad is not divine but human directives so then they should bring any material piece of this nature before the public to judge whether any literary piece better than the Quran specifically verse 34  in this chapter 52.  This challenge was also offered in Makkah twice again and then in Medina after migration but no one has bought up till now any literary piece of the same status as the Quran.

80. Al – Tawwāb – The Accepter of Repentance 

And [mention] when We said to the angels, “Prostrate before Adam”; so they prostrated,1 except for Iblees. 2 He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.3

And We said, “O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will.4 But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.”5

But Satan caused them to slip out of it 6 and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, “Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time.”7

Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.8

We said, “Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance – there will be no fear concerning them9, nor will they grieve.10

And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs11 – those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.”12

(Al-Baqarah 2:34-39)

  1. Allah called and introduced all the angels assigned from the services in the universe that a new creation, the Human Species, is established to work as the vicegerent (deputy in charge) on behalf of Allah. Therefore, now all the angels are hereby ordered to consider the human beings also as their masters to follow their orders and wishes and Allah hereby permits and helps the angels to work under them as well. Hence, now onward every one of the angels should carry on the work under their jurisdiction also under the direction of the humans.
    1. Prostration of humans did not mean any subjugation to humans rather it is a prestige for the angels to serve the humans as well.
  2. “Iblees” is an Arabic word meaning  “a highly deprived creature”.  Technically it is referred to the species of  jinn who outrightly rejected to surrender to the humans. This entity is also termed as Al-Shaitan. Iblees is not the name assigned to an imaginary power but this species is also an existing one even nowadays.  Allah has specified at other places in Al-Quran that Jinn is also a specialized specie like angels but entirely different than the angel ones.
  3. It seems that Iblees  is not an individual being but a group of Jinns being inclined to disobey this divine order.  The name Iblees  has been given to the chief of this species as the main leader of the group. In Al-Quran, the Arabic word “shayateen” has been used for such Jinns including all their progeny.
  4. It connotes that this human couple is being dispatched to the Earth as Allah’s vicegerent.  They started to have the stay in the paradise for a test for their trends and interests and to know to what extent they maintain the divine order during the temptation and persuasion by the devils.
  5. So far the test they were ordered never to go near a tree because if they do so they shall be construed as the offender and oppressor in the eyes of Allah. It was not important to inform about the peculiarity of the tree or its product.  As the main aim was to test the obedience or the rejection of divine order by the two.  To select paradise as the place of test the necessity was to ascertain them to carry on the assignments of the  vicegerency of Allah. Paradise is the best and deserving place as a deputy for Allah to to return at the end of assignment.
  6. “Oppressing” is actually usurpation used for the one who disobeys Allah; he commences the rejection of the the basic duties to Allah,  as all humans should be obedient to His order. The Quran has used oppression as the word for the evil-doer for their corruptions.
  7. It means “shaitan” is the enemy of “insan” and “insan” is the enemy of shaitan. Hence  it is not meant to live as the enemy of shaitan but shaitan is to behave as the enemy of insan because of his jealousy and pride. Also some humans, because of the future material gains, considered shaitan as the friends as well as their intelligent advisors.
  8. When Adam realized his blunder, he wanted to transform his disbelief to the repentance for forgiveness from his Rabb but he could not use the verses of prayers for repentance and forgiveness. Allah used His benevolent mercy and taught him the words and actions for forgiveness.  The Arabic word “taubah” means to return back and ask for forgiveness and pledge of repentance not to repeat again this blunder. Taubah on behalf of servant is that he is now to abandon the characteristic of mistakes and has to return back to the practice of servitude and taubah on behalf of Allah pertains to forgive the humans ad-hock with the mercy, blessings, and good will.
  9. Al Quran condemns the idea a sinner is always permanent and so he should be considered doomed. This is one of the wrong man-concocted conception.  On the contrary, Allah has given the opportunity of freedom from evil-doing if one sincerely asks forgiveness and commits not to repeat the sin again.
  10. This verse affirms that Adam repented and Allah accepted his repentance. This clearly declares that the blot of being permanent sinner imposed on him has now been taken away, neither on him or her nor on  their on-going progeny. Now when the order of leaving the paradise has been given again it pertains to the idea that the acceptance of repentance was not meant to keep Adam forever in paradise because he is actually destined to serve as the care-taker of world affairs by living in this world.  Paradise is not destined to all the human being as the permanent abode.  Hence the present exit from the paradise is not meant as the real punishment but has been used for human-beings to fulfill their mission of vicegerency in the world.  Adam was placed in the paradise temporarily initially for the test for Adam together with the grant of the final and best abode in case Adam becomes successful in the test.
  11. The Arabic word “ayāt” is the plural of Arabic “ayat” which means the sign or pointer to guide towards the specific directives. In Al-Quran this world has been used for different purpose. Firstly, only assigned; secondly, manifestation of the universe and many manifestation in the universe. Thirdly, this indicates the miracle given by Allah to the Prophet for the evidence of Allah  (God) because the Prophet, to persuade the people to repent and ask for forgiveness, could use these miracles. Finally, this word has been used in the verses of Allah in Al-Quran as His attributes that can be understood and practiced by human beings according to their levels and capacities.
  12. The verses number (2:38,39) are the permanent axiom of Allah for the humans. A human is not supposed to select his or her ideas and decision for the worldly pattern of living.  The best duty of the humans is to serve Allah as the final Sovereign, always acquire the knowledge of Allah’s directives and adhere strictly for their practice. If any mistake or sin occurs, no human being should despair – rather they should immediately repent and ask for forgiveness as soon  as he or she realizes the mistakes or sins.

Continued in AMUST issue #128 July