This issue continues the series exclusive to AMUST on the 99 divine attributes of Allah.

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  1. Al – Muqaddim – The Foremost

“Truly, We have granted you a clear victory1

 So that Allah may forgive you your past and future sins2 and complete His favor to you3 and guide you to a straight path4

and so that Allah might bestow on you His mighty help

It was He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believer, to add faith to their faith5 – the force of the heavens and earth belongs to Him; He is all knowing and all wise.” 

(Al-Fath , 48:1-4)


  1. When tiding of victory was communicated after the Hudaybiyah treaty, the people wondered how the treaty should be considered as the victory. Not much time had passed that after the commencement of the treaty that everyone realised that the victory of Islam was mostly due to the Treaty of Hudaybiyah.
  2. Umar (r), on hearing the revealed verses for treaty, asked the Prophet, “O Prophet is it a victory?” The Prophet emphatically affirmed. After arriving in Madinah another believer commented to the expression “what kind of victory is this?”. We have been prohibited to visit the house of Allah, our camels were also not allowed for sacrifice. The Prophet had to stay only after Hudaybiyah. Moreover because of this treaty our two oppressed brothers (Abu Jandal and Abu Baseer) have been handed back to the tyrants. When the Prophet heard these rumours, he indirectly immediately replied “yes very true information has been conveyed in the verses, in reality it is a great victory. You approached the residents of polytheists and they begged you for coming back next year for Umrah. They themselves requested for a pact of treaty by stopping any fight at the moment. All this occurred even though they have great vengeance and jealousy against us.”
  3. The context of this verse tells about the misgivings from the efforts for the successful achievement of the Islamic movement commenced by the last Prophet, Muhammad (s). That the believers had been continuing for the last nineteen years under the leadership of the Prophet. These deficiencies had not been known to them rather human intellect is totally incapable to discover these during this time. As this Prophet is addressed, Allah declares the forgiveness to his past and present shortcomings. Therefore, all the minor weaknesses and deficiencies of the Prophet are also forgiven by Allah. So when the companions used to observe the extraordinary engagements of the Prophet in religious activities, they used to comment, “All your deficiencies have been pardoned by Allah then why do you undergo all these tiring efforts?” the Prophet used to answer “a-flā aquno ‘abdan shakoora (should I not become a thankful servant of Allah)”
  4. But the lofty ideal of the perfectness of Allah is the same that traced the effects and secrets that could not enable the believers to achieve success over the Arab polytheists in such a short period. Here Allah conveys that the believers would have continued to struggle on this project and they could have acquired a very long period to dominate Arab polytheism. So Allah compensated the believers with His Intention and Help foregoing their weaknesses and shortness. Allah opened the entrance of victory through the event of Hudaybiyah and which could now be achieved by their own efforts. Please keep in mind that if a large group is making effort for any lofty ideal, it does not naturally mean that any deficiencies of the group are necessarily the personal ones of the leader. Basically these are the intrinsic weaknesses of the struggle itself which are undergone by the whole group. But the leader is addressed to point it for the whole group.
  5. Completing His favours pertains to the future in which the believers lived in the world under the Islamic system controlled by Islamic civilisation and completely secure from foreign disturbances and intervention. They are procured to declare the call of Allah to the whole world population. The events of blasphemy and debauchery, always hindrance and problems against the propagation to the call to Allah are considered as fitna in the Quran. Be totally free from the fitna having a total liberal dar ul Islam ‘the house of Islam’ was the future which was indirectly hinted by the Hudaybiyah treaty. This blessing of Allah has been achieved to the believers to the Prophet. Allah has helped the Prophet to establish Islamic civilisation in the whole world and therefore He has bestowed this ni’mah to the Prophet.
  6. To show the straight path to the Prophet means the way of victory and success. It means that Allah, through the Treaty at Hudaybiyah made the path easy and difficult as well. At the event of Hudaybiyah many unbearable behaviours and actions by the polytheists were making the Muslims to lose their temper. But having full confidence and patience on the leadership of the Prophet the believers very patiently carried on all these sufferings while a slight mistake or reaction would have destroyed the whole attitude of Allah who became very pleased with the believers at this time.
  7. Allah bestowed the tranquillity of heart and peace to the believers in order to make their iman more pure and elevated. Hence this verse proves that belief is not a simple static condition, rather it can be elevated as well as degraded. After accepting Islam up to the death a believer’s life meets across so many different types of temptations that it becomes difficult and very tempting to them to not sacrifice their nice opportunities and material advantages in comparison to giving away their life and properties, emotions and feelings all this for the sake of Allah. At this juncture if a believer adopts the way of sacrifice at every corner of temptation, his belief becomes elevated and his rank becomes raised by Allah, but if a believer fails and becomes slight weak, his belief becomes frozen and a time comes when the whole capital of belief is totally lost and he becomes out of the group of believers.

Continued in AMUST issue #124 March